CATALOG DESCRIPTION: This course presents the physics and technology of nanoscale  semiconductor photonic and electronic quantum devices. The student is expected to have a basic understanding of quantum mechanics and semiconductor devices. This course reviews basic semiconductor device technologies and then focuses on several novel devices including quantum cascade lasers, multi-junction solar cells, Type-II superlattices, quantum dot infrared photodetectors, single photon detectors, and THz emitters

REQUIRED TEXTS: M. Razeghi, Technology of Quantum Devices, Springer, 2010. ISBN: 978-1-4419-1055-4


  • M. Razeghi, Fundamentals of Solid State Engineering, 3rd ed., Springer, 2009.
  • M. Razeghi, The MOCVD Challenge, 2nd ed., Taylor & Friancis, 2011.
COURSE GOALS: Quantum Devices; The course is designed to teach the student the  elements of advanced science and technology principles and their application to specific classes of quantum devices, such as: quantum cascade lasers, multi-junction solar cells, quantum well infrared photodetectors, quantum dot infrared photodetectors, Type-II superlattice based photodetectors, single photon detectors, and novel quantum devices for the generation of terahertz emission and detection.

PREREQUISITES: EECS 223 & 388, or consent of instructor.


  • Introduction to Quantum Devices: Review of basic quantum mechanics, Fermi golden rule, Fermions and Boson,  the new  physics of  low dimensional and nano structures ; ,  dark and photo-assisted charge transport, mobility, effective  mass, drift velocity, scattering relaxation time , recombination time and gain, absorption and emission of light, electromagnetic field amplification using surface plasmons.  Excitons and polaritons.
  • Photodetectors: A photodetector can be defined as a device that converts an optical signal into another type, usually electrical signal. Examples are   photovoltaic detectors, photoconductors, thermal detectors, and photo-electromagnetic detectors. We review   established technologies such   as p-i-n photodiodes, Schottky barrier photodiodes, and Metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes; and we briefly introduce state of the art  devices such as  Type-II detectors, QDIPs, and avalanche photodiodes which will be discussed later in more detail.
  • Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodetectors: We explore the physics of Type II superlattice photodetectors. Quantum mechanics is applied to discuss the bandgap engineering of the superlattice structure for infrared detection. Having determined the structural parameters, we take a closer look at the fabrication of infrared photodetectors, and describe how growth processes and device processing techniques are realized
  • Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors: Quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) have achieved commercial success and more recently this technology has been extended to QD quantum dot systems to develop quantum dot in well infrared photodetectors (QDWIP), and quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIP).  This section will focus on the physics, design and characteristics of this type of detector.
  • Single-Photon Detectors: We review the basic properties of avalanche Photodiodes and focus on the “Geiger mode” operation for photon counting purposes. We give examples of state-of-the-art  single-photon avalanche diodes in Si, InGaAs, and GaN.
  • Semiconductor Lasers: Spontaneous and stimulated emission of photons, photon coherence and entanglement.   Semiconductor lasers: General laser theory, waveguiding principles, evolution of semiconductor laser technology, semiconductor laser characteristics, novel laser architecture, and packaging.
  • Quantum Cascade Lasers: Lasers for mid-infrared sources and limitations of current technology, intersubband transitions, laser rate equations, optical phonon resonance, multi-stage cascading, laser waveguides and core heterostructure design, growth and characterization of material for QCLs, typical laser characteristics, QCL optimization, photonic crystal distributed feedback QCLs, state-of-the-art in QCL performance.
  • Terahertz Device Technology: Applications of THz sources, existing broadband THz sources, optical conversion to THz, optically pumped THz gas lasers, THz generation from silicon and germanium semiconductor lasers, intersubband generation of THz from quantum cascade lasers, the use of magnetic field in THz generation, difference frequency generation of THz, and the use of wide band-gap semiconductors for THz generation.
  • High Efficiency Solar Cells: We review the basic properties of silicon solar cells, and then   introduce the more advanced multi-junction III-V semiconductor based high efficiency solar cells.
  • Group-IV Based Devices: We review the fundamental properties of silicon, germanium based devices. We discuss the new science and applications of carbon based materials technologies, in particular, the new physics and applications of graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNT);  2-dimensional structures,  supported  and free standing , materials with zero band gaps and anomalous effective masses .




PROJECTS: Study a novel quantum device not presented in the course. Read recent publications in the scientific literature, and develop an understanding of the device, its design, physics, and operation and present your topic to the class both as an oral presentation and as a written review article.

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS: Homework is assigned weekly to reinforce concepts learned in class.


  • Homework – 20%
  • Participation – 20%
  • Midterm – 20%
  • Project – 20%
  • Final – 20%

COURSE OBJECTIVES: When a student completes this course, (s)he should have developed an understanding of quantum devices and should be able to:

  • Understand the basic principles of  semiconductor quantum engineering.
  • Understand the operation and design of many types of modern semiconductor lasers.
  • Understand the operation and design of many types of modern semiconductor photodetectors.
  • Understand state-of-the-art THz applications and emitters.
  • Be able to assimilate topical developments in the field of Quantum devices, including the recent discoveries in carbon and organic technologies.
  • Be able to present the results of study and research.

ABET: 50 % Science, 50 % Engineering